2021/03/15

【筆記】《格林童話》〈杜松樹〉(檜樹)心得:兒童故事中的暴力與恐怖(部分可列限制級內容)

俗稱《格林童話》(德語:Grimms Märchen)的《兒童與家庭童話集》(德語:Kinder- und Hausmärchen,KHM)是德國格林兄弟出版的一部著名童話集,首版於1812年出版,全書總共七版共收錄童話200餘則。

本篇所說的〈杜松樹〉(〈The Juniper Tree〉或〈The Almond Tree〉,低地德語 :〈Von dem Machandelboom〉)出現於於第一版,至第七版仍存在著,是本作品中比較血腥、恐怖的。

(本篇含有部分暴力內容,心智不成熟者,建議不觀看此篇。)
(可先參考維基百科所說的內容再參酌)



簡述

《格林童話》一開始是格林兄弟因為研究,而收集德國民間故事。首版於1812年出版,是以孩童的角度向成人說故事。之後因應市場,轉較為孩童看的兒童文學,因此初期的暴力、恐怖、性等等拿掉不少。
〈杜松樹〉是在始於第一版中,裡面隱含著兒童虐待、謀殺、自相殘殺和聖經象徵,是《格林童話》第七版中比較成熟的故事之一。


故事大綱

先附上從維基百科英文版的大綱內容與個人簡單的翻譯:


A wealthy and pious couple pray every day for God to grant them a child. One winter, under the juniper tree in the courtyard, the wife peels an apple. She cuts her finger and drops of blood fall onto the snow. This leads her to wish for a child to be as white as snow and as red as blood. Six months later, the wife becomes gravely ill from eating juniper berries and asks her husband to bury her beneath the juniper tree if she dies. A month later, she gives birth to a baby boy as white as snow and as red as blood. She dies of happiness. Keeping his promise, the husband buries her beneath the juniper tree. He eventually marries again and he and his new wife have a daughter named Marlinchen (in some versions Marlene, Marjory or Ann Marie).

一對富裕虔誠的夫婦每天祈禱上帝賜予他們一個孩子。在某個冬天,妻子在院子的杜松樹下剝了一個蘋果。她不小心劃破手指,鮮血滴落在雪地上。看到這個,她希望一個孩子能像雪一樣白、像血一樣紅。六個月後,妻子因食用杜松子而患了重病,她要求丈夫把自己埋葬在杜松樹下;一個月後,她生下了一個男嬰,他就像雪一樣白,像血一樣的紅色。而她就在這幸福中死去。丈夫信守諾言,將她埋在杜松樹下。之後丈夫再次結婚,他和新婚妻子有一個女兒,名字叫瑪麗臣(Marlinchen)(在某些版本中為Marlene,Marjory或Ann Marie)。

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The new wife loves Marlinchen but despises her stepson. She abuses him every day, claiming that she wishes Marlinchen to inherit her father's wealth instead of her stepson. One afternoon after school, the stepmother plans to lure her stepson into an empty room containing a chest of apples. Marlinchen sees the chest and asks for an apple, which the stepmother gracefully offers. However, when the boy enters the room and reaches down the chest for an apple, the stepmother slams the lid onto his neck, decapitating him. The stepmother binds his head with the rest of his body with a bandage and props his body onto a chair outside, with an apple on his lap. Marlinchen, unaware of the situation, asks her stepbrother for an apple. Hearing no response, she is forced by her mother to box him in the ear, causing his head to roll onto the ground. Marlinchen profusely cries throughout the day whilst the stepmother dismembers the stepson's body and cooks him into a "blood-soup" (Black Puddings Sauer/Suur) for dinner. She later deceives her husband by telling him that his son stayed at the mother's great uncle's house. The husband unwittingly eats the "blood-soup" (Black puddings/Sauer/Suur) during dinner and proclaims it to be delicious. Marlinchen gathers the bones from the dinner and buries them beneath the juniper tree with a handkerchief.

新妻子愛瑪麗臣,卻鄙視自己的繼子。她每天虐待他,聲稱她希望瑪麗臣繼承父親的財產而不是繼子。在某個放學後的下午,繼母計劃引誘她的繼子進入有著裝滿一箱蘋果的空房間。瑪麗臣看到了胸部(?),並要了一個蘋果,繼母優雅地提供了一個蘋果。但是,當男孩進入房間並伸手從胸部往下拿一個蘋果時,繼母將蓋子砸在了脖子上,他的頭就斷掉了。繼母用繃帶將頭部與身體的其他部分綁在一起,將身體支撐在外面的椅子上,膝蓋上放著一個蘋果。瑪麗臣不了解情況,向她的繼兄弟要了一個蘋果。因為沒有聽到任何回應,媽媽要瑪麗臣拳打他耳朵,這使他的頭滑落在地上。 瑪麗臣嚇到整天哭泣,而繼母肢解了繼子的身體,並把他煮成「血湯」(Black Puddings Sauer / Suur,應該是一種稱為「血布丁」的傳統食物)當晚飯。後來,她欺騙丈夫,說兒子留在母親的大叔叔家中。丈夫在晚餐時不知不覺地吃了「血湯」,並說它很美味。 瑪麗臣晚餐中收集骨頭,然後用手帕將其埋在杜松樹下。

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Suddenly, a mist emerges from the juniper tree and a beautiful bird flies out. The bird visits the local townspeople and sings about its brutal murder at the hands of its stepmother. Captivated by its lullaby, a goldsmith, a shoemaker and a miller offer the bird a gold chain, a pair of red shoes and a millstone in return for the bird singing its song again. The bird returns home to give the gold chain to the husband while giving Marlinchen the red shoes. Meanwhile, the stepmother complains about the “raging fires within her arteries”, revealed to be the real cause of her anger and hatred towards her stepson. She goes outside for relief but the bird drops the millstone onto her head, killing her instantly. Surrounded by smoke and flames, the son, revealed to be the bird, emerges and reunites with his family. They celebrate and head inside for lunch, and live happily ever after.

突然,杜松樹上出現了薄霧,一隻美麗的鳥飛出來。這隻鳥拜訪了當地的鄉親,並在唱起了繼母對自己施行的慘案。一個金匠、一個鞋匠和一個磨坊主被這首搖籃曲所吸引,為這隻鳥提供了一條金鍊、一雙​​紅鞋和一塊磨石,以換取那隻鳥再次唱歌。鳥兒回到家把金鍊子給了丈夫,同時又給瑪麗臣紅鞋。同時,繼母抱怨現在「體內的熊熊大火」,這是造成她生氣和對繼子的仇恨的真正原因。她出門尋求緩解,但那隻鳥把磨石扔到她的頭上,把她殺死了。鳥被煙和火焰包圍,出現了兒子,大家發現那隻鳥就是他,於是與家人團聚。他們慶祝並進去吃午餐,從此過著幸福快樂的生活。

~~~

其中歌詞:

"My mother she killed me,

My father he ate me,

My sister, little Marlinchen,

Gathered together all my bones,

Tied them in a silken handkerchief,

Laid them beneath the juniper-tree,

Kywitt, kywitt, what a beautiful bird am I!"

我媽媽殺死了我,

我父親他吃了我,

我姐姐小瑪麗臣,

聚集了我所有的骨頭,

用柔軟的手帕把他們綁起來,

將它們放在杜松樹下,

凱威特,凱威特,我是多麼美麗的鳥!


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心得評點

上面中只有依照維基百科提供的大綱做翻譯,沒有提供完整的故事,完整的故事在網路上很多,就不再多說。這邊想要著重的點是在格林兄弟在選故事,以及故事背景的一點心得。


這篇〈杜松樹〉(〈檜樹〉)中,裡面有著兒童虐待、謀殺、自相殘殺和聖經意象等,詳細的意象可以在英文版的維基百科中讀到。在故事中,兒童的虐待與暴力部分很明顯,就是繼母對他繼子的態度,以及殺害他,並且為了讓自己脫罪,於是假裝是她女兒殺死的,這使她的女兒成為共犯,協助隱瞞殺人的事實。並加上做成血肉湯,讓全家吃掉,這不僅僅是嫉妒而失手,是一起毀屍滅跡的蓄意行為。而在男孩成為鳥,到處唱自己被謀殺的歌,大家不因為歌詞而覺得恐懼,反而因為牠的歌聲深深被吸引,甚至給牠禮物只求再唱一次。這樣的內容從第一版收入後,經過為兒童閱讀而出版六次後,仍收入其中,表示當時對於暴力、報復、恐怖的接受度很高。而這樣的血腥復仇,是在當時覺得可接受的範圍內,就好像我們現在壞人都在故事最後被抓走,送到警察局處理一樣。

可見對於這類暴力與恐怖氛圍早期人們接受度比較大的,而且對於孩童閱讀也覺得是可接受的,所以在故事中,他們知道那隻會唱歌的鳥是自己的家人,就算他殺死繼母,仍接受他,和他一起過著如日常般的生活。這部分原因是當時的存活率比較低,大家對與死生看得比較開。但,不可否認的是這些暴力與性都是人生的一部份,而當時的人們坦然的接受這些,而不是如現代,把這些藏身於在後面中,每個人都彷彿是個理性的完美個體,小孩是最純真的生命(天使?👀),不容許些微的玷污。


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